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4f)8                                                                              RAPID POPULATION GROWTH-I1
Malnutrition in Preschool Children Grouped According to the Number
of Living Children in Their Families,
Candelaria, Colombia, 1963
Total	Malnourished Children	
sr of Living                              Number of		
Ľon/Family                                 Children	Number	Percent
75	24	32.0
185	63	34.1
178	73	41.0
204	83	40.7
136	57	41.9
122	57	46.7
62	25	40.3
>r more                                           106	49	46.2
Source: Wray and Aguirrc (10).
in children from families with four children or less (38 percent malnourished among 642 children) compared with those from families with five or more (44 percent malnourished among 462 children) is statistically significant-highly unlikely to result from sampling fluctuations.*
Quite recently, our students at the Ramathibodi Hospital Faculty of Medicine in Bangkok found a similar relationship in Thai preschool children, In an investigation of the total preschool population of a semirural community near Bang Pa-In, 212 children under the age of 6 years were examined. It was found that 58 percent of those from families with four or more children were malnourished, while 42 percent of those from families with three children or less were so classified (15). This difference was also .statistically .significant.
Robertson and Kemp carried out one of the few direct studies of family si/.e and child health among children in the group called Coloured in Cape Town, South Africa (16). They sought an association between family size and malnutrition and deaths from causes related to malnutrition. An "unselected control to show the sixe of families" was obtained from births during 1 week
of February, 1%2.
Their findings that are particularly relevant here were based on the distribution of families according to the number of living children per family. They
a developing country get older, their income rises but little while family size increases steadily. They seem to attempt to compensate for this by spending a larger proportion of their income for food, but per capita expenditures for food actually fall, and malmitri-factors, both social and economic, that were implicated in the cause of malnutrition will be described in the next-to-last section of this chapter. It should be mentioned here that we found in the Candelaria study that as laboring men in of various common illnesses by family size. As an example, their findings with